[09-15 23:10:43]   来源:http://www.duoxue8.com  公共英语考试   阅读:295

  Section II Use of English
  Many theories concerning the causes of juvenile delinquency (crimes committed by young people) focus either on the individual or on society as the major contributing influence. Theories __21__ on the individual suggest that children engage in criminal behavior __22__ they were not sufficiently penalized for previous misdeeds or that they have learned criminal behavior through __23__ with others. Theories focusing on the role of society suggest that children commit crimes in __24__ to their failure to rise above their socioeconomic status, __25__ as a rejection of middle-class values.
  Most theories of juvenile delinquency have focused on children from disadvantaged families, __26__ the fact that children from wealthy homes also commit crimes. The latter may commit crimes __27__ lack of adequate parental control. All theories, however, are tentative and are __28__ to criticism.
  Changes in the social structure may indirectly __29__ juvenile crime rates. For example, changes in the economy that __30__ to fewer job opportunities for youth and rising unemployment __31__ make gainful employment increasingly difficult to obtain. The resulting discontent may in __32__ lead more youths into criminal behavior.
  Families have also __33__ changes these years. More families consist of one parent households or two working parents; __34__, children are likely to have less supervision at home __35__ was common in the traditional family __36__. This lack of parental supervision is thought to be an influence on juvenile crime rates. Other __37__ causes of offensive acts include frustration or failure in school, the increased __38__ of drugs and alcohol, and the growing __39__ of child abuse and child neglect. All these conditions tend to increase the probability of a child committing a criminal act, __40__ a direct causal relationship has not yet been established.
  21. [A] acting[B] relying[C] centering[D] commenting
  22. [A] before[B] unless[C] until[D] because
  23. [A] interactions[B] assimilation[C] cooperation[D] consultation
  24. [A] return[B] reply[C] reference[D] response
  25. [A] or[B] but rather[C] but[D] or else
  26. [A] considering[B] ignoring[C] highlighting[D] discarding
  27. [A] on[B] in[C] for[D] with
  28. [A] immune[B] resistant[C] sensitive[D] subject
  29. [A] affect[B] reduce[C] check[D] reflect
  30. [A] point[B] lead[C] come[D] amount
  31. [A] in general[B] on average[C] by contrast[D] at length
  32. [A] case[B] short[C] turn[D] essence
  33. [A] survived[B] noticed[C] undertaken[D] experienced
  34. [A] contrarily[B] consequently[C] similarly[D] simultaneously
  35. [A] than[B] that[C] which[D] as
  36. [A] system[B] structure[C] concept[D] heritage
  37. [A] assessable[B] identifiable[C] negligible[D] incredible
  38. [A] expense[B] restriction[C] allocation[D] availability
  39. [A] incidence[B] awareness[C] exposure[D] popularity
  40. [A] provided[B] since[C] although[D] supposing


  21. 答案:[C] centering
  分析:本题是典型的“复现”题,即作者在文章不同的地方使用相同或者不同的词汇表达相同或类似的意思。本文的第一句话中(Many theories concerning the causes of juvenile delinquency (crimes committed by young people) focus either on the individual or on society as the major contributing influence),已经使用了词组:。 focus on(关注于,侧重于,着重于)解释理论侧重于的内容;而且本段落的最后一句话在解释另一种理论所侧重于的内容时,又一次使用了focus on (Theories focusing on the role of society……), 所以,作者为本题已经给出了明确的已知提示线索—“focus on”,从4个选项中选出centering on表达与focus on同样意思即可。
  22. 答案:[D] because
  分析:本题是考查上下句逻辑关系衔接的连词题,从前后两句来看一定是因果关系,后面的句子(they were not sufficiently penalized for previous misdeeds or……)是对前一句青少年为什么犯罪的解释,只能选择[D] because。如果选择了其他三个选项,上下句的逻辑关系就不通了。
  23. 答案:[A] interactions
  分析:本题明显考查词义的辨析,考查考生对这4个名词意义和用法的深入理解。在4个选项中最具有干扰性的是 [B] assimilation(吸收,使同化),这个词不要理解为“模仿”,其准确意义用英文解释为:(to become part of a group or society etc., or to make someone or something become part of a group or society), 即改变成为什么的一部分,即“同化。而从本题所在句子提供的信息是表示:青少年之所以犯罪的途径是什么,介词through 表达是就是通过什么途径,本填空的所要选的名词即表达这个途径。青少年做“learned criminal behavior”这个动作显然不可能是通过“成为其他人的一部分”这个途径。而[A] interactions 这个词的意思是(activities of talking and doing things with other people)在这里表达了“与别人互动的意思,这样与前边青少年“learned criminal behavior” 这个动作就形成合理搭配了。选项 [C] cooperation(合作)以及 [D] consultation(咨询,商量)与本题题意不相符合。
  24. 答案:[D] response
  分析:本题首先可以看出与前边的22题的选项“because”形成复现呼应,即本题也是选择一个表示“青少年犯罪的原因是什么”。因此,排除 in return to (回报) 以及 in reference to (关于,有关,注意crimes in reference to 表示 “有关……的犯罪”);in reply to 表示“对……的回答或回复”,reply 在这里表示的意思很窄,仅限定为“回答或回复”,因此只有in response to表达出了“对……。的回应、反应,在这里可以引申“由于或者出于”的意思,表示一种因果的关系。
  25. 答案:[A] or
  分析:本题很简单,从逻辑关系判断,本题所连接的两个成分是并列地表达“青少年犯罪的原因”。而且,作者在前边解释第一个理论时所用的句型中(……they were not sufficiently penalized for previous misdeeds; or that they have learned criminal behavior through……)已经使用过了“or”,上下两个句子的结构实际是对等的,找到对应关系也很容易选出[A] or。
  26. 答案:[B] ignoring
  分析:对于本题考生只要能正确理解上下句的提示线索,就很简单。前边的线索是:大多数的理论把青少年犯罪归咎于他们来自贫困家庭(disadvantaged families),后面的线索:来自富有家庭(wealthy homes)的孩子也会犯罪;这就说明前面的这个理论是没有考虑后面的这个事实(fact)的。能准确表达这个意思的词只能是[B] ignoring;[D] discarding(丢弃)在这里与宾语fact的搭配意思不合适;而[A] considering(考虑)以及[C] highlighting(使显著)与题意不符合。
  27. 答案:[C] for
  分析:本题所在的这句话(The latter may commit crimes (27) ____ lack of adequate parental control)中的“The latter”指代的是上句中的“children from wealthy homes”,所以本题仍然是选择一个“青少年犯罪原因”表因果关系的词,显然是[C] for。
  28. 答案:[D] subject
  分析:本题所在的句子(All theories, however, are tentative and are (28) ____ to criticism)实际上是进行一个小的总结,即对前边提到的理论下一个定义。因此本题的提示线索很明显:前边文章中已经明确指出了各种理论存在缺陷,因此这些theories与criticism(批评)之间的关系一定是be subject to “易受到批评的”。选项[A] immune(免疫于,即不会受到批评)和[B] resistant(抗拒)都不符合提示线索。[C] sensitive(对……敏感)这个意思与本题无关。
  29. 答案:[A] affect
  分析:本题所在的句子是本段的首句,而且从上下文的关系可以判断出它是本段的总述句,本题可以应用“总分结构对照法”,也就是说本题所要选的这个动词是对下面分述的总结。本段的分述部分明确地指出“经济变化引起的失业率增加从而导致犯罪率的上升”,即都是围绕着“社会变化如何引起犯罪率的变化”。把握了以上提示线索,本题的答案一定是[A] affect(影响)。其他选项[B] reduce(减少)以及[C] chock(稳定)在文章中都没有已知提示线索的支持;[D] reflect(反映)表达不出对本句与和下面分述部分的呼应关系,也造成本句的意思不清。

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2016年公共英语三级完形填空冲刺模拟(三) 结束。
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